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Executive summary

Blackstone Green Energy has developed a patent-pending method for producing and distributing green hydrogen. This document provides an overview of the technology. (9 pgs.)


The Blackstone Method: The next generation in solar-to-fuel technology for large-scale green hydrogen production

In this white paper, Blackstone Green Energy discusses:

  • The potential of hydrogen for development of a low-carbon energy future
  • Problems with conventional methods of hydrogen production
  • The Blackstone Method production and delivery cycle
  • Requirements for full implementation of the Blackstone Method
  • The role of the Blackstone Method in development of the hydrogen economy (14 pgs.)

Certification of proven ore reserve values of the Blackstone

Richard Kucera, Ph.D., F.G.A.C, and Angrew Egan, B.Sc. compute the probable ore values of the Blackstone mineral property. (6 pgs.)


Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area

Excerpt from Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5089-C from the U.S. Geological Survey showing "High Potential with Certainty Level D" for porphyry-related gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc polymetallic vein deposits at the Blackstone property. (6 pgs.)


Solar-hydrolytic method for on-site production, distribution, and storage of hydrogen fuel, zinc powder, and zinc oxide using carbon-neutral technology

Provisional patent application of Blackstone Green Energy covering production and distribution of green hydrogen. (36 pgs.)


Method for producing hydrogen fuel, zinc powder, zinc oxide, polymetallic matte bullion, and potable water from zinc ore

Provisional patent application of Blackstone Green Energy covering the Blackstone Method of green hydrogen production. (15 pgs.)


A 300 kW solar chemical plant for the carbothermic production of zinc

The EU research project SOLZINC accomplished a pioneer technology demonstration of a large-scale solar chemical plant. The key component is PSI’s 300-kW solar chemical reactor for the production of zinc by carbo-thermic reduction of ZnO. Its testing at a large-scale solar concentrating facility in the 1300–1500 K range yielded up to 50 kg/h of 95%-purity Zn with energy conversion effi ciency (ratio of the reaction enthalpy change to the solar power input) of about 30%. The SOLZINC process provides an effi cient thermochemical route for the storage and transportation of solar energy. (2 pgs.)


Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production via zinc hydrolysis process

Thermodynamic studies were carried out for the hydrogen production via zinc hydrolysis. It is shows that it is reasonable to keep the temperature of zinc hydrolysis under 900 oC. The system pressure has no notable thermodynamic influences on the hydrolysis reaction. The initial H2O/Zn molar ratio should be controlled in a reasonable range. (5 pgs.)


Production of hydrogen from solar zinc in steam atmosphere

Production of hydrogen via hydrolysis of zinc with steam is an essential step in the Zn/Z nO thermochemical cycle for splitting of water. Recent studies on reducing ZnO to Zn metal with the aid of concentrated solar energy stimulated the interest in the hydrolysis of the zinc for hydrogen production. One of these studies was focusing on solar carbothermal reduction of ZnO to produce zinc powder (EC/FP5-SOLZINC project). The current paper deals with the hydrolysis process of this material which will be referred to, hereafter, as SOLZINC. Test results obtained during the hydrolysis of SOLZINC powder in batch experiments at atmospheric pressure demonstrate possibilities of fast and high conversion of SOLZINC powder with steam to ZnO powder and hydrogen without intermediate melting or evaporation of zinc and indicate that the reaction occurs in two different rates, depending on the preheating temperature. A slow reaction starts at about 250 ◦C and the hydrogen output increases with reactor temperature. The fast stage starts as the reactor temperature approaches 400 ◦C. Above this temperature, the reaction develops vigorously due to fast increase of the reaction rate with temperature resulting in releasing additional exothermic heat by the reacted powder. Increasing the preheating temperature (when the steam flow starts) from 200 to 550 ◦C can improve the SOLZINC conversion during the fast stage from 24% to 81% and increase the hydrogen yield. When the fast stage decays, slow reaction can be continued on for a long time until the hydrogen production is fully achieved. (12 pgs.)


Solar carbothermic production of zinc and power production via a ZnO-Zn-cyclic process

The reduction of ZnO with a carbonaceous material using concentrated solar radiation as energy source is an innovative concept (1) for the storage of solar energy in Zn as a "solar fuel" prior to its use for the production of electricity in Zn-air fuel cells or of hydrogen by splitting water with Zn. In both cases ZnO is formed, which can be reprocessed to Zn in the solar plant, creating a cyclic process (2) for the production of metallic Zn as a commodity with drastically reduced CO2-emissions compared to conventional fossil-fuel based Zn-production. This paper gives an overview over the SOLZINC-project, in which we investigate the scientific and technological problems of scaling up this novel technology. Based on the small scale investigations a batch process (1 batch per day) using a concentrated beam down radiation heating the ZnO-C mixture has been selected for upscaling. The choosen furnace concept using concentrated solar irradiation to react ZnO and a solid carbon material to produce gaseous Zn has been further optimized on 5-10 kW scale. The necessary input data for upscaling have been generated. The results with respect to operation temperature requirements, overall reaction rates, choice of specific C-material for reduction and of construction materials of the furnace are used to design and build a pilot plant at a scale of several hundred kW. The use of Zn-dust as to be produced from the offgas of the solar reactor for mechanically rechargable Zinc-air fuel cells has been demonstrated. (6 pgs.)


Solar thermochemical production of hydrogen: The carbothermic ZnO/Zn cyclic process

The two-step carbothermic ZnO/Zn cycle is one of the most promising routes for producing hydrogen by splitting water with the aid of concentrated solar energy. In a first endothermic step concentrated solar energy is used as the source of process heat to produce Zn and CO from ZnO and a carbon source, e.g. charcoal. The solar produced Zn can be stored and eventually transported before being exothermically reacted with steam to produce H2 and ZnO. The produced CO may be exothermically shifted to H2 by reaction with water, or used for onsite power production. The solar step has been successfully tested within the EU’s R&D project SOLZINC on a pilot scale of 300 kW concentrated solar power, yielding up to 50 kg/h of 95%-purity Zn. The Zn in different physical forms can be used for hydrogen production. Several options have been investigated for this process on laboratory scale. (8 pgs.)




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Blackstone Green Energy, Inc.
22422 Kellerman Drive NE
Kingston, Washington 98346
USA
Jim Hawley, President
  Direct:  (702) 204-7699